Ordinarily I use “static” references in /etc/fstab to mount NFS shares to a server. Doing this on a Rocks Cluster however is a bit “hacky” and adapting every node can be automated by using rocks run host however there is a alternative way. (not sure if its better 😉 ) but Rocks uses Autofs to load NFS mounts when they are required. So I felt brave and wanted to learn something new. This is the documentation on that journey.  

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On Centos 7.5 base install, there are no utility’s installed by default. So when I tried to mount an NFS share I got this error :

mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on svennd.be:/data,
       missing codepage or helper program, or other error
       (for several filesystems (e.g. nfs, cifs) you might
       need a /sbin/mount.<type> helper program)

       In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try
       dmesg | tail or so.

This clearly tells us it cannot communicate with the NFS share, fixing can be done installing : nfs-utils for Centos.

yum install nfs-utils

for Debian variants (Mint, Ubuntu, …) this would be :

apt install nfs-common

After that, I see happy shares 🙂

mount.nfs: timeout set for Wed Nov 14 12:57:50 2018
mount.nfs: trying text-based options 'soft,intr,retrans=2,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,nfsvers=3,tcp,addr=svennd.be'
mount.nfs: prog 100003, trying vers=3, prot=6
mount.nfs: trying svennd.be prog 100003 vers 3 prot TCP port 2049
mount.nfs: prog 100005, trying vers=3, prot=6
mount.nfs: trying svennd.be prog 100005 vers 3 prot TCP port 20048
/data    : successfully mounted

 

Rename a volume group on LVM

8 November, 2018

In a recovery of a system I found myself in annoying pickle of having two disks with a similar LVM layout and more precise with a equally named volume group. This can cause issues, however in my case it just stopped me from mounting the original device. To make matters worse the sizes of the volumes where nearly identically in size. Not really a user of LVM, it was time for google to save me.

Activating both identical volume failed :

[email protected]:~# vgchange -ay
  device-mapper: create ioctl on pve-swapLVM-Do7QVk4UeQXTTqVtB5b0pISJQy1YL1YJ4RB7lZXsAvYVGcYs9e7TZcFuHfkUBZJz failed: Device or resource busy
  device-mapper: create ioctl on pve-rootLVM-Do7QVk4UeQXTTqVtB5b0pISJQy1YL1YJgnTssDJJQj59LISgspFSLEH2pzqQLYw9 failed: Device or resource busy
  1 logical volume(s) in volume group "pve" now active
  device-mapper: create ioctl on pve-dataLVM-46zXzJmc3xbdOtJdsVXrSlb5siaAacfRmhJ3Ac2ET7201zotB4DEX2kVu9gSafDC-tpool failed: Device or resource busy
  2 logical volume(s) in volume group "pve" now active

So first thing I found was lvmdiskscan this will search for disk that are formatted with LVM. Not surprisingly I found two disks (new and old one) and a third data disk. (RAID)

[email protected]:~# lvmdiskscan
  /dev/sda2 [     256.00 MiB]
  /dev/sda3 [     465.51 GiB] LVM physical volume
  /dev/sdb2 [     510.00 MiB]
  /dev/sdb3 [     465.15 GiB] LVM physical volume
  /dev/sdc  [      29.10 TiB]
  1 disk
  2 partitions
  0 LVM physical volume whole disks
  2 LVM physical volumes

note : partition /dev/sda3 and /dev/sdb3 are dangerously similar !

Now we know that the partitions are very similar, however perhaps I might be lucky that the logical volumes where different lvscan :

[email protected]:~# lvscan
  inactive          '/dev/pve/swap' [58.12 GiB] inherit
  inactive          '/dev/pve/root' [96.00 GiB] inherit
  ACTIVE            '/dev/pve/data' [295.03 GiB] inherit
  ACTIVE            '/dev/pve/swap' [8.00 GiB] inherit
  ACTIVE            '/dev/pve/root' [96.00 GiB] inherit
  inactive          '/dev/pve/data' [338.60 GiB] inherit

note : there is a slight different in sizing of the volumes, this is good information. However the names are equal. This is causing the issue.

If we can change the volume group name (pve) this should be enough to mount it. However I don’t want to take the active ones, as that might crash my current system (?) So let’s check using vgdisplay :

[email protected]:~# vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               pve
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  64
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                3
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               465.15 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              119078
  Alloc PE / Size       114983 / 449.15 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       4095 / 16.00 GiB
  VG UUID               Do7QVk-4UeQ-XTTq-VtB5-b0pI-SJQy-1YL1YJ

  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               pve
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  7
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                3
  Open LV               2
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               465.51 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              119170
  Alloc PE / Size       115075 / 449.51 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       4095 / 16.00 GiB
  VG UUID               46zXzJ-mc3x-bdOt-JdsV-XrSl-b5si-aAacfR

Since there is a slight difference in size (449.51 vs 449.15) and I know the current disk in use is my new system (/dev/sda)  (check using df -h).

I know I need /dev/sdb3 with 465.15 GB in size, this is the first in the list with UUID (Do7QVk-4UeQ-XTTq-VtB5-b0pI-SJQy-1YL1YJ)

Finally we know what we want to rename, it seems almost too simple using vgrename :

[email protected]:~# vgrename Do7QVk-4UeQ-XTTq-VtB5-b0pI-SJQy-1YL1YJ pveb
  Processing VG pve because of matching UUID Do7QVk-4UeQ-XTTq-VtB5-b0pI-SJQy-1YL1YJ
  Volume group "Do7QVk-4UeQ-XTTq-VtB5-b0pI-SJQy-1YL1YJ" successfully renamed to "pveb"

After this we can activate the volume group using vgchange :

vgchange -ay

And voila one can mount the new device :

mkdir -p /data/oldroot
mkdir -p /data/data

mount /dev/pveb/root /data/oldroot
mount /dev/pveb/data /data/data

Tadaaa ! The data is available once more 🙂

We bought our first 10GBase-T switch. Pretty nice, but setting it up proved a bit more complex then our SuperMicro switches. Here I documented my search to get servers to talk to each other over a VLAN using the switch to assign IP addresses, using DHCP.

Login & Connect

Logging in proved rather easy and was similar to SuperMicro’s, connect “through the back” using a RJ45 alike cable that is actually a serial cable to USB. (I don’t think this was included, but there alternatives) Once connected I could find the “COM” port windows assigned checking Bluetooth devices :

windows screen of bluetooth & other devices

One could also open the device manager and find it under COM ports. I used putty as my VT100 terminal emulator, on any Linux distro there are plenty of options but the easiest option would be screen. The setting of this switch are : 115200 baud speed, 8 data bits, 1 stop bits, none parity, none flow control.

Connect and enter twice and voila you can see the cli interface, the default login is “admin” and no password.

To get the assigned IP address :

# set ip
ip management vlan 1 8.8.8.8

# get ip
show ip management

# or 
show ip vlan

After you get the IP address or guess it, you can go to the more simple web-interface configuration option. In my case the IP was 169.254.100.100. to be greeted with a login page.

Make VLAN

First I needed to make a VLAN, Switching -> VLAN -> basic -> VLAN Configuration. Giving a VLAN ID and a name (disable static).  If everything works it should look like :

vlan configuration m4300

After this, you need to define the VLAN membership this can be done in Switching -> VLAN -> Advanced -> VLAN Membership. Go to VLAN ID you just made (in my case 400) and select group operation tag all then untag all, so that all ports show as untagged. (U).

untag VLAN 400 members

From my basic understanding of VLAN’s and tagged packets, I figured that a port can only be part of one untagged VLAN. I’m probably wrong, but this “worked”. So I made all my ports that I intend to use for data to this new VLAN. Switching -> VLAN -> Advanced -> Port PVID Configuration. I changed VLAN member for all except my management port I’m using (1/0/1). Do this by entering the VLAN ID into VLAN Member and accepting the changes. It should look like :

port VLAN PVID configuration

Now for some reason, ports are still not able to communicate. Time to add a routing interface.

Routing Interface VLAN

This is totally new to me so, bare along : Routing -> VLAN -> VLAN Routing Configuration; We need to add routing configuration, from the dropdown select our PVID (400) and create a IP address for the routing (end with 1) I decided on 10.0.0.1 for the IP and subnet mask 255.255.255.0 so eventually IP’s allowed will be 10.0.0.[0-255].

It’s important to remember this IP adres, as we will re-use it once we setup the DHCP.

Setup DHCP service

Seamless next step, would you not say ? We need to setup the DHCP, which can be found : System -> Services -> DHCP Server -> DHCP Server Configuration.

We need to set the Admin Mode to enabled, and exclude our routing interface, so that this is not given out by the DHCP. It should look like :

After this we are ready to create the DHCP pool, do this under System -> Services -> DHCP Server -> DHCP Pool Configuration.

Pool name : (random) Type of Binding : Dynamic. Network Addressshould be the one we picked for the routing interface and excluded in the previous step. But instead of 1 use 0. In our case Network Address is 10.0.0.0 and the netmask is 255.255.255.0 or length 24. I setup lease time, to 7 days, which is a weekly thing. Should end up looking like :

After this the only thing remaining is testing & saving the configuration. If you are happy with how it works save your configuration.  Maintenance -> Save Configuration

 

 

While updating our network on the Rocks Cluster, the nodes had to reinstall (this is default protocol). Now however the nodes got stuck during PXE (over the net automatic installation) on the setting of the language.

install language Centos

a screen like this (source).

This is annoying as it would mean connect a screen and a keyboard to every node to install. This however is an indication that something is wrong all together, however finding what proved a little bit tricky, that’s why I share it here.

To find if you face the same issue, execute :

sudo -u apache /opt/rocks/bin/rocks list host profile compute-0-0

This will show the configuration the node pulled from the head-node.  In my case it looked like :

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/opt/rocks/bin/rocks", line 301, in <module>
    command.runWrapper(name, args[i:])
  File 
"/opt/rocks/lib/python2.6/site-packages/rocks/commands/__init__.py", 
line 2194, in runWrapper
    self.run(self._params, self._args)
  File 
"/opt/rocks/lib/python2.6/site-packages/rocks/commands/list/host/profile/__init__.py", 
line 301, in run
    for host in self.getHostnames(args):
  File 
"/opt/rocks/lib/python2.6/site-packages/rocks/commands/__init__.py", 
line 773, in getHostnames
    min,max = self.db.fetchone()
TypeError: 'NoneType' object is not iterable

While this should be a large XML file structure like. After allot of extensive google skills (and this 2013 topic) I found out that a simple MySQL update had dropped the root password out of the global configuration, this can be found :

/opt/rocks/etc/my.cnf

a update, generally saves it here :

/opt/rocks/etc/my.cnf.rpmsave

it should look like this :

[mysqld]
user            = rocksdb
port            = 40000
socket          = /var/opt/rocks/mysql/mysql.sock
datadir         = /var/opt/rocks/mysql

[client]
user            = rocksdb
port            = 40000
socket          = /var/opt/rocks/mysql/mysql.sock
password        = <password>

You don’t have to restart the MySQL or the service, just let the node reboot and it will install properly 🙂

Good luck

Rocks distro is a cluster system. It comes with SNMP configured out of the box. It is polled using Ganglia. Which is working nicely, but I like to have all SNMP data in my favorite SNMP system, LibreNMS. Changing the SNMP configuration to be able to poll from LibreNMS should be a rather straight forward process, however those nodes have no connection to the public network. They have a private VLAN to talk to the head-node and a private VLAN to communicate with the storage array. So to get the SNMP data to Librenms we will have to get crafty with Iptables to get this data to LibreNMS on the public net.

forward snmp from 161 to 3161

Configuration

First let’s check the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file from the Rocks installation :

com2sec        notConfigUser   default         public
group  notConfigGroup  v1              notConfigUser
group  notConfigGroup  v2c             notConfigUser
view    all             included        .1             80

access  notConfigGroup  "" any noauth exact all all all

This config is a bit complex and I figure I won’t go back, so I commented it. I decided not to remove it completely, since I don’t want to break the possibility to go back to Ganglia should it be an important system in Rocks. (note : it’s not) I added :

# this create a  SNMPv1/SNMPv2c community named "my_servers"
# and restricts access to LAN adresses 192.168.0.0/16 (last two 0's are ranges)
rocommunity my_servers <our_public_net>/16
rocommunity my_servers 10.1.0.0/16

# setup info
syscontact  "svennD"

# open up
agentAddress  udp:161

# run as
agentuser  root

# dont log connection from UDP:
dontLogTCPWrappersConnects yes

Important here is, that I added two IP ranges, I’m not sure if the private VLAN (10.1.0.0/16) is even required, but since traffic is going over those devices I just added it.

Next thing is setting up the Iptables on the head-node. Since Rocks is already pretty protective (good !) I had to add an extra rule to even allow SNMP polling from the device :

-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 161 -j ACCEPT

Allow the head-node to be polled by LibreNMS by accepting incoming UDP packets over port 161.

To receive packets send from the node on port 161 to the head-node, but forward this to port 3161 externally to LibreNMS (circumventing most known ports and the REJECT rule in Rocks for port 1-1023.) can be done with prerouting rule :

-A PREROUTING -i eth1 -p udp -m udp --dport 3161 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.1.255.244:161
-A POSTROUTING -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE

Note : 10.1.255.244 is the private IP of the node.

So from now on packets should come in, this can be checked using tcpdump, which came in handy during the debugging of this project : (on the node)

tcpdump 'port 161'

To be able to let snmpd answer we needed the information to be forwarded on the head-node, this can be done with a forward rule :

-A FORWARD -d 10.1.255.244/32 -p udp -m udp --dport 161 -m state --state NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j

note : again 10.1.255.244 is the ip of the node.

Surprisingly the node was unable to answer to the incoming requests. This was due to the fact that, the default route (route -n) was pointing towards one of the storage servers. To add a default gateway we can add it using route :

route add default gw 10.1.1.1 eth0

note : 10.1.1.1 is the private VLAN ip of the head-node.

Conclusion

Bam! LibreNMS can talk to the node using the public IP of the head-node on port 3161 and to the head-node on port 161. One issue that remains unsolved is on reboot, this setup is lost. Rocks by default will reinstall nodes that reboot. This can be resolved by adapting the configurations on Rocks and rebuild the distribution (rocks create distro). However this is rather advanced and (IMHO) difficult to debug. So I did not use that system for this project. Another problem is that its rather work-intense to add all the configuration to all the nodes. (this is only for a single node) This can be resolved most easily using scripts and using rocks run host to execute bits on all the nodes. I decided that I only want one node to be polled as a sample. I already track opengridscheduler using an extend on the head-node. So this is mostly for debugging. Good luck !

Oh noes, while starting a container, it failed cause of a corrupt quota file…

Starting container ...
vzquota : (error) quota file is corrupted
vzquota on failed [4]
TASK ERROR: command 'vzctl start 114' failed: exit code 60

The fix is to remove it and rebuild it (this takes a long time, depending on the size of the container)

# this failed
vzquota off 114

# delete the quota
quota drop 114

We can rebuild the quota using vzquota but that is done automatically if you restart the container :

# vzctl start 114
Starting container ...
Initializing quota ...

The vzquota currently running is : (for reference)

/usr/sbin/vzquota init 114 -b 8388608100 -B 9227468900 -i 1600000100 -I 1760000100 -p /data/private/114 -e 0 -n 0 -s 0

Sit back and relax, cause this will take time.

Got this error :

mount.nfs: rpc.statd is not running but is required for remote locking.
mount.nfs: Either use '-o nolock' to keep locks local, or start statd.
mount.nfs: an incorrect mount option was specified

You forgot the rpcbind service !

yum install rpcbind
service rpcbind start
chkconfig rpcbind on

Glad to help 😉

Mount NFS on LXC Proxmox

8 August, 2018

I’m a long time user of Proxmox (a few years), and recently I had the chance to upgrade an by-now ancient Proxmox 3.4 to current 5.2. In that time frame the developers have changed from OpenVZ to LXC and made a script to migrate the data. One key element however, mounting (remote) NFS shares are no longer possible from within the containers, at least not native.

Within the container the error is rather lacking information and is pointing towards the NFS server issue.

Aug  8 09:09:51 svennd mount: mount.nfs: access denied by server while mounting nfs_server:/data

However, on the Proxmox host, in /var/log/messages you can find that apparmor is the problem.

apparmor="DENIED" operation="mount" info="failed flags match" error=-13 profile="lxc-container-default-cgns" name="/storage/nfs_server/data/" pid=25086 comm="mount.nfs" fstype="nfs" srcname="nfs_server:/data" flags="ro, noatime"

It seems this is a feature .

Well now, lets try and undo this security feature, in my case the profile that is causing it to block is lxc-container-default-cgns. You can find this file : /etc/apparmor.d/lxc/lxc-default-cgns Also some other configs can be found there (not sure when what profile is loaded) I added :

mount fstype=rpc_pipefs,
mount fstype=nfs,

below mount fstype=cgroup -> /sys/fs/cgroup/**, resulting in this final file :

# Do not load this file.  Rather, load /etc/apparmor.d/lxc-containers, which
# will source all profiles under /etc/apparmor.d/lxc

profile lxc-container-default-cgns flags=(attach_disconnected,mediate_deleted) {
  #include <abstractions/lxc/container-base>

  # the container may never be allowed to mount devpts.  If it does, it
  # will remount the host's devpts.  We could allow it to do it with
  # the newinstance option (but, right now, we don't).
  deny mount fstype=devpts,
  mount fstype=cgroup -> /sys/fs/cgroup/**,
  mount fstype=rpc_pipefs,
  mount fstype=nfs,
}

After that we need to reload Apparmor, I’m not sure what made it work again, but it was one of these :

apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/lxc-containers
systemctl apparmor reload

And now we can mount from within once more ! 🙂

There is an alternative, but from what I read here you need to remap user ID’s, and need to use mountpoints on the host and draw them inside the container.

A small list for important Proxmox files & directories.

For LXC (Linux containers) :

config: /var/lib/lxc/$ct_id/config

For KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine, mostly Windows machines)

config: /etc/pve/qemu-server/$kvm_id.conf

Cluster files (if you use Proxmox cluster)

per node configuration : /etc/pve/nodes/$node_name/*

Location of the ISO files that can then be loaded from the web interface :

/var/lib/vz/template/iso/